title image: flowers

The Phenology of Tropical Trees
Rolf Borchert


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  1. Borchert R (1980) Phenology and ecophysiology of tropical trees: Erythrina poeppigiana O.F. Cook. Ecology 61: 1065–1074.
  2. Borchert R (1983) Phenology and control of flowering in tropical trees. Biotropica 15:81–89.
  3. Borchert R (1991) Growth periodicity and dormancy. In AS Raghvendra (ed): Physiology of trees, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp 221–245.
  4. Borchert R (1994a) Water storage in soil or tree stems determines phenology and distribution of tropical dry forest trees. Ecology 75:1437–1449.
  5. Borchert R (1994b) Water status and development of tropical trees during seasonal drought. Trees 8:115–125.
  6. Borchert R (1994c) Induction of rehydration and bud break by irrigation or rain in deciduous trees of a tropical forest in Costa Rica. Trees 8:198–204.
  7. Borchert R (1996) Phenology and flowering periodicity of neotropical dry forest species: evidence from herbarium collections. J. Trop. Ecol. 12:65–80.
  8. Borchert R (1998) Responses of tropical trees to rainfall seasonality and its long-term changes. Climatic Change 39:381–393.
  9. Borchert R (1999) Climatic periodicity, phenology, and cambium activity in tropical dry forest trees. IAWA Journal 20:239–247.
  10. Borchert R (2000) Organismic and environmental controls of bud growth in tropical trees. In CD Viemont and J Crabbè (eds), Dormancy in Plants: From whole plant behavior to cellular control. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. Pp. 87–107.
  11. Borchert R, Rivera G (2001) Photoperiodic control of seasonal development and dormancy in tropical stem-succulent trees. Tree Physiol. 21:213–221.
  12. Borchert R, Rivera G, Hagnauer W (2002) Modification of vegetative phenology in a tropical semideciduous forest by abnormal drought and rain. Biotropica, 34:27–39.
  13. Borchert R, Meyer SA, Felger RS and Porter-Bolland L (2004) Environmental control of flowering periodicity in Costa Rican and Mexican tropical dry forests. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 13:409–425.
  14. Borchert R et al. (2005) Photoperiodic induction of synchronous flowering near the Equator. Nature 433:627–629.
  15. Borchert R, Pockman W (2005) Water storage capacitance and xylem tension in isolated branches of temperate and tropical trees. Tree Physiol. 25:457–466.
  16. Borchert R, Robertson K, Schwartz MD and Williams-Linera G (2005) Phenology of temperate trees in tropical climates. Int. J. Biometeorol. 50:57–65.
  17. Calle Z, Strahler AH, Borchert R (2009) Declining insolation induces synchronous flowering of Montanoa and Simsia (Asteraceae) between Mexico and the Equator. Trees 23:1247–1254.
  18. Calle Z et al. (2010) Seasonal variation in insolation induces synchronous bud break and flowering in the tropics. Trees 24:865–877.
  19. Elliott S, Baker PJ and Borchert R (2006) Leaf flushing during the dry season: the paradox of Asian monsoon forests. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 15:248–257.
  20. Reich P, Borchert R (1982) Phenology and ecophysiology of the tropical tree, Tabebuia neochrysantha (Bignoniaceae). Ecology 63:294–299.
  21. Rivera G, Borchert R (2001) Induction of flowering in tropical trees by a 30-min reduction in photoperiod: evidence from field observations and herbarium specimens. Tree Physiol. 21:201–212.
  22. Rivera G, Elliott S, Caldas LS, Nicolossi G, Coradin VTR, Borchert R (2002) Increasing day-length induces spring flushing of tropical dry forest trees in the absence of rain. Trees 16: 445–456.
  23. Wright SJ (1996) Phenological responses to seasonality in tropical forest plants. In SD Mulkey, RL Chazdon, AP Smith (eds) Tropical forest ecophysiology, Chapman & Hall, New York, pp 440–460.
  24. Wikipedia, Insolation (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insolation).
  25. Borchert R et al (2015) Insolation and photoperiodic control of tree development near the equator. New Phytologist, 205:7-13.